In 2003 the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) awarded SRI International $150M to design a program that learned from watching people work. The project was called Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes (CALO) and was lead by Adam Cheyer. Cheyer split his time working on another virtual assistant called Vanguard. Dag Kittlaus, a General Manager at Motorola, saw the Vanguard prototype, fell in love and in 2007 went to work for SRI. In 2008 they received $8.5M in start up money, left SRI and formed Siri. Development continued and in early 2010 a standalone app was released in the Apple Store. Meanwhile Verizon was putting together a deal to buyout Siri and place Siri on their Droid phones built by HTC and Motorola. Before Verizon could make an offer, Steve Jobs swooped in and bought the start up. The first version of Siri appeared on the iPhone 4S in Oct 2011. Imagine, if Verizon had been just a tad bit quicker Siri would be an android app!